Cardano and the Exclusive Club

Chapter 3, Problem 6 from [To Mock a Mockingbird]

Here is a [calculational solution] to this problem.

In a small village there is an Exclusive Club, consisting of every person who doesn't shave anyone who shaves him. There is also the local barber, Cardano, who boast that he shaves the Exclusive Club, the whole Exclusive Club, and nothing but the Exclusive Club. Prove that Cardano cannot be telling the truth.


We write x and y for arbitrary people in the village, and let c stand for Cardano. We use the following notations:
 xSy == "x shaves y"
 E.x == "x is a member of the Exclusive Club"
The definition of the Exclusive Club can be represented as
 (1)  (Ax|: E.x == (Ay| ySx: !xSy))
and Cardano's claim is
 (2)  (Ax|: cSx == E.x)


We will prove that (1) and (2) together lead to a contradiction. We start with (1): for every x,
   E.x == (Ay| ySx: !xSy)
==   "(2), which is the only thing known about E.x"
   cSx == (Ay| ySx: !xSy)
=>   "logic: weakening, so that we can substitute y:=c"
   cSx => (Ay| ySx: !xSy)
=>   "choose y:=c"
   cSx => (cSx => !xSc)
==   "logic: simplify"
   cSx => !xSc
This proves
 (3)  (Ax| cSx: !xSc)
Now there are two obvious things that we can do with this statement: we can substitute x:=c, or we can rewrite it so that definition (1) applies. We will do both.

First we calculate

   (Ax| cSx: !xSc)
==   "choose x:=c"
   cSc => !cSc
==   "logic: rewrite =>"
   !cSc \/ !cSc
==   "logic: simplify"
and then
   (Ax| cSx: !xSc)
==   "logic: exchange range and domain, to prepare for (1)"
   (Ax| xSc: !cSx)
==   "(1), after renaming x:=y"
==   "(2)"
So from (1) and (2) we've derived both that Cardano shaves himself, and that he doesn't, which is a contradiction. Therefore Cardano was lying.
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