Chapter 4 of "The Lady or the Tiger" brings us to Transsylvania. In this country we find both vampires (who always lie) and humans (who always speak the truth). However, part of the population is insane, so that they believe the truth to be false, and lies to be true. Therefore, e.g., a sane vampire and an insane human can never say opposite things.
In problem 5 Raymond Smullyan tells us about a Mr and Mrs Dracula, of which it is already known that one of them is sane and the other insane, and that one of them is a vampire and the other a human. Then Inspector Craig hears them say the following. He: "She is a vampire." She: "He is insane!"
Question: which one is the vampire?
H.x == "x is a human (as opposed to vampire)" S.x == "x is sane (as opposed to insane)" x[P.x] == "x believes P.x" x<P.x> == "x says P.x"The following axioms hold for every Transsylvanian x:
(A1) x[P.x] == H.x == S.x == P.x (A2) x<P.x> => x[P.x]
(1) h<~H.s> (2) s<~S.h>and their known differences as
(3) H.h =/= H.s (4) S.h =/= S.sWe can immediately apply (A2) and (A1) to her statement (2) to derive
s<~S.h> --- (2) => "(A2) with x:=s" s[~S.h] == "(A1) with x:=s" H.s == S.s == ~S.h == "(4)" H.s == "(3)" ~H.hTherefore he is the vampire, and she is human.
(Note that we didn't use his statement (1) at all. It doesn't say anything about their 'vampirity', but it does describe their sanity: a similar calculation
h<~H.s> --- (1) => "(A2) with x:=h" h[~H.s] == "(A1) with x:=h" H.h == S.h == ~H.s == "(3)" S.h == "(4)" ~S.sshows that he is sane, and she is insane.)
Changes to calc/tlott-4-5.html: Sat Oct 30 12:38:39 MEST 2004 Marnix Klooster * Move from CVS to darcs: do not show the CVS date anymore. Tue Feb 5 14:42:44 MET 2002 marnix * Added tlott-4-5 and tlott-7-1 (and made tlott.html and calc-sols.html m4-aware)